PHP 5.5.15 is released

fnmatch

(PHP 4 >= 4.3.0, PHP 5)

fnmatchCompara nome de arquivo com um padrão

Descrição

bool fnmatch ( string $pattern , string $string [, int $flags ] )

fnmatch() verifica se a string passada combina com o padrão de curingas shell pattern.

Parâmetros

pattern

Padrão de curingas shell

string

A string testada. Esta função é especialmente útil para nomes de arquivo, mas também pode ser usada em strings normais.

O usuário comum pode estar acostumado com padrões shell ou pelo menos, na sua forma mais simples, aos curingas '?' e '*'. Então usar fnmatch() ao invés de ereg() ou preg_match() para pesquisas pela interface pode ser muito mais conveniente para usuários não programadores.

flags

Veja a manpage Unix de fnmatch(3) para nomes de flags (contanto que não estejam documentadas aqui).

Valor Retornado

Retorna TRUE se combinar, FALSE do contrário.

Exemplos

Exemplo #1 Comparando uma cor com um padrão de curingas shell

<?php
if (fnmatch("*gr[ae]y"$color)) {
  echo 
"alguma forma da cor gray (cinza) ...";
}
?>

Notas

Aviso

Por enquanto esta função não está disponível no Windows ou outros sistemas não POSIX.

Veja Também

  • glob() - Acha caminhos que combinam com um padrão
  • ereg() - Casando expressões regulares
  • preg_match() - Perform a regular expression match
  • sscanf() - Interpreta a entrada de uma string de acordo com um formato
  • printf() - Mostra uma string formatada
  • sprintf() - Retorna a string formatada

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User Contributed Notes 9 notes

up
1
jk at ricochetsolutions dot com
7 years ago
soywiz's function didnt seem to work for me, but this did.

<?php
if(!function_exists('fnmatch')) {

    function
fnmatch($pattern, $string) {
        return
preg_match("#^".strtr(preg_quote($pattern, '#'), array('\*' => '.*', '\?' => '.'))."$#i", $string);
    }
// end

} // end if
?>
up
1
me at rowanlewis dot com
3 years ago
Here's a definitive solution, which supports negative character classes and the four documented flags.

<?php
   
   
if (!function_exists('fnmatch')) {
       
define('FNM_PATHNAME', 1);
       
define('FNM_NOESCAPE', 2);
       
define('FNM_PERIOD', 4);
       
define('FNM_CASEFOLD', 16);
       
        function
fnmatch($pattern, $string, $flags = 0) {
            return
pcre_fnmatch($pattern, $string, $flags);
        }
    }
   
    function
pcre_fnmatch($pattern, $string, $flags = 0) {
       
$modifiers = null;
       
$transforms = array(
           
'\*'    => '.*',
           
'\?'    => '.',
           
'\[\!'    => '[^',
           
'\['    => '[',
           
'\]'    => ']',
           
'\.'    => '\.',
           
'\\'    => '\\\\'
       
);
       
       
// Forward slash in string must be in pattern:
       
if ($flags & FNM_PATHNAME) {
           
$transforms['\*'] = '[^/]*';
        }
       
       
// Back slash should not be escaped:
       
if ($flags & FNM_NOESCAPE) {
            unset(
$transforms['\\']);
        }
       
       
// Perform case insensitive match:
       
if ($flags & FNM_CASEFOLD) {
           
$modifiers .= 'i';
        }
       
       
// Period at start must be the same as pattern:
       
if ($flags & FNM_PERIOD) {
            if (
strpos($string, '.') === 0 && strpos($pattern, '.') !== 0) return false;
        }
       
       
$pattern = '#^'
           
. strtr(preg_quote($pattern, '#'), $transforms)
            .
'$#'
           
. $modifiers;
       
        return (boolean)
preg_match($pattern, $string);
    }
   
?>

This probably needs further testing, but it seems to function identically to the native fnmatch implementation.
up
1
Sinured
6 years ago
An addition to my previous note: My statement regarding the FNM_* constants was wrong. They are available on POSIX-compliant systems (in other words, if fnmatch() is defined).
up
1
theboydanny at gmail dot com
6 years ago
About the windows compat functions below:
I needed fnmatch for a application that had to work on Windows, took a look here and tested both. Jk's works for me, soywiz didn't (on WinXPSP2, PHP 5.2.3).
The only difference between them is addcslashes (soywiz) instead of preg_quote (jk). They _should_ both work, but for some reason soywiz's didn't for me. So YMMV.
However, to make JK's fnmatch() work with the example in the documentation, you also have to strtr the [ and ] in $pattern.
<?php
$pattern
= strtr(preg_quote($pattern, '#'), array('\*' => '.*', '\?' => '.', '\[' => '[', '\]' => ']'));
?>
And thanks for the functions, guys.
up
1
Sinured
6 years ago
Possible flags (scratched out of fnmatch.h):
...::...

FNM_PATHNAME:
> Slash in $string only matches slash in $pattern.

FNM_PERIOD:
> Leading period in $string must be exactly matched by period in $pattern.

FNM_NOESCAPE:
> Disable backslash escaping.

FNM_NOSYS:
> Obsolescent.

FNM_FILE_NAME:
> Alias of FNM_PATHNAME.

FNM_LEADING_DIR:
> From fnmatch.h: /* Ignore `/...' after a match.  */

FNM_CASEFOLD:
> Caseless match.

Since they’re appearing in file.c, but are not available in PHP, we’ll have to define them ourselves:
<?php
define
('FNM_PATHNAME', 1);
define('FNM_PERIOD', 4);
define('FNM_NOESCAPE', 2);
// GNU extensions
define('FNM_FILE_NAME', FNM_PATHNAME);
define('FNM_LEADING_DIR', 8);
define('FNM_CASEFOLD', 16);
?>

I didn’t test any of these except casefold, which worked for me.
up
0
bwilcock at gmail dot com
8 months ago
fnmatch is not 100% reliable. Bug 14185 is still open and may or may not have been patched.

In certain wildcard circumstance fnmatch("*needle*", $haystack, match) returns false intermittantly

However stripos or preg returns a "find".
up
0
bernd dot ebert at gmx dot net
2 years ago
There is a problem within the  pcre_fnmatch-Function concerning backslashes. Those will be masked by preq_quote and ADDITONALLY by the strtr if FN_NOESCAPE is not set -> something like "*a(*" will finally result in "#^.*a\\(.*$#". Note the double backslash which effectively does NOT mask the "(" correctly.

Since preq_quote always matches a backslash I don't think that this'll work with using preg_quote at all.
up
0
Frederik Krautwald
7 years ago
soywiz's function still doesn't seem to work -- at least not with PHP 5.2.3 on Windows -- but jk's does.
up
0
phlipping at yahoo dot com
10 years ago
you couls also try this function that I wrote before I found fnmatch:

function WildToReg($str)
{
  $s = "";  
  for ($i = 0; $i < strlen($str); $i++)
  {
   $c = $str{$i};
   if ($c =='?')
    $s .= '.'; // any character
   else if ($c == '*')   
    $s .= '.*'; // 0 or more any characters   
   else if ($c == '[' || $c == ']')
    $s .= $c;  // one of characters within []
   else
    $s .= '\\' . $c;
  }
  $s = '^' . $s . '$';

  //trim redundant ^ or $
  //eg ^.*\.txt$ matches exactly the same as \.txt$
  if (substr($s,0,3) == "^.*")
   $s = substr($s,3);
  if (substr($s,-3,3) == ".*$")
   $s = substr($s,0,-3);
  return $s;
}

if (ereg(WildToReg("*.txt"), $fn))
  print "$fn is a text file";
else
  print "$fn is not a text file";
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